Diamond as a super hard tool material has been used in cutting for hundreds of years. In the process of tool development, from the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, tool materials with high-speed steel as the main representative. In 1927, Germany first developed carbide cutting tool materials and obtained a wide range of applications. In the 1950s, artificial diamonds were synthesized in Sweden and the United States respectively, and cutting tools entered a period represented by superhard materials. In the 1970s, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was synthesized by high-pressure synthesis technology, which solved the problem of rare natural diamond and high prices. And also extended the application scope of diamond tools to the industry, aerospace, aviation, automobile, metallurgy, military industry, and other fields.
Research on PCD tools has been carried out earlier in industrially developed countries, and their applications have become more mature. Since the first synthetic diamond was manufactured in Sweden in 1953, the technology has achieved many achievements in the study of cutting performance of PCD tools. At present, the international famous synthetic diamond composite chip manufacturers mainly include DeBeers of the UK, GE of us and Sumitomo electric of Japan.
In the first quarter of 1995, it was reported that Japan alone produced 107,000 PCD knives. The application scope of the PCD tool has been extended from the initial turning to drilling and milling. A survey conducted by a Japanese organization on superhard tools shows that the main considerations for choosing PCD tools are the surface accuracy, dimensional accuracy and tool life advantages of PCD tools. The synthetic technology of diamond composite chips has also been greatly developed. DeBeers has introduced polycrystalline diamond composite chips with a diameter of 74mm and a thickness of 0.3mm.
The domestic PCD tool market is expanding with the development of tool technology. At present, few groups have more than 100 PCD tool use points, and many wood-based panel enterprises also use PCD tools for wood product processing. The application of the PCD tool has further promoted the research on its design and manufacturing technology.
Tsinghua University, Dalian University of technology, Hua Zhong university of science and technology, Jilin university of technology and Harbin Institute of Technology are all actively carrying out research in this field. Domestic engaged in the development and production of PCD tools are Shanghai shubhat, Zhengzhou Xinyi, Nanjing lanzhi, Shenzhen runxiang, Chengdu tool research institute, Chengdu daimengdi and dozens of units.
At present, the processing scope of PCD tools has been extended from the traditional metal cutting processing to stone processing, wood processing, metal matrix composite materials, glass, engineering ceramics, and other materials processing.
Through the analysis of the application of PCD tools in recent years, it can be seen that PCD tools are mainly used in the following two aspects: difficult to process non-ferrous metal materials processing: processing with ordinary tools difficult to process non-ferrous metal materials, often produce tool wear, low processing efficiency defects, and PCD tools can show good processing performance. If the PCD tool can be used to efficiently process the new type of engine piston material — super eutectic silicon and aluminum alloy (a breakthrough has been made in the research on the processing mechanism of this material).(2) difficult processing of non-metallic materials: PCD tool is very suitable for stone, hard carbon, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), artificial plate and other difficult processing of non-metallic materials processing. For example, Hua Zhong university of science and technology realized processing glass with PCD cutter in 1990; At present, laminate flooring and other wood-based boards (such as MDF) are widely used.
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